Patrick Codd

Positions:

Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery
School of Medicine

Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science

Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
Pratt School of Engineering

Core Faculty in Innovation & Entrepreneurship

Duke Innovation & Entrepreneurship
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 2008

Harvard Medical School

General Surgery Intern, General Surgery

Massachusetts General Hospital

Neurosurgery Resident, Surgery

Massachusetts General Hospital

Grants:

Augmented Reality Assisted Placement of External Ventricular Drain

Administered By
Neurosurgery
Awarded By
American Association of Neurological Surgeons
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Creation of a non-contact, automated brain tumor detection device for use in brain tumor resection

© COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only. The ability to differentiate healthy and tumorous tissue is vital during the surgical removal of tumors. This ability is especially critical during neurosurgical tumor resection due to the risk associated with removing healthy brain tissue. In this paper, we present an epifluorescence spectroscopy guided device that is not only capable of autonomously classifying a region of tissue as tumorous or healthy in real-time-but is also able to differentiate between different tumor types. For this study, glioblastoma and melanoma were chosen as the two different tumor types. Six mice were utilized in each of the three classes (healthy, glioblastoma, melanoma) for a total of eighteen mice. A "one-vs-the-all" approach was used to create a multi-class classifier. The multi-class classifier was capable of classifying with 100% accuracy. Future work includes increasing the number of mice in each of the three tumor classes to create a more robust classifier and expanding the number of tumor types beyond glioblastoma and melanoma.
Authors
Tucker, MB; Joseph, S; Ross, W; Ma, G; Chongsathidkiet, P; Fecci, P; Codd, P
MLA Citation
Tucker, M. B., et al. “Creation of a non-contact, automated brain tumor detection device for use in brain tumor resection.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 11225, 2019. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2546603.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1435965
Source
scopus
Published In
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of Spie
Volume
11225
Published Date
DOI
10.1117/12.2546603

Model for and analysis of intraoperative brain tumor boundary detection based on known spectral signatures of glioblastoma

© 2019 SPIE. Intraoperative imaging of brain tumors using spectral signatures of tissue, based on injected fluorescent dye such as 5-ALA, has enabled surgeons to target residual malignant tissue near the boundaries of the tumor cavity where extent of resection is most difficult. This paper presents a novel approach to intraoperative tumor boundary detection based on a moving excitation laser crossing a tumor boundary while measuring spectral signatures generated. In prior work, we have characterized the intrinsic spectral signatures of glioblastoma and healthy brain tissue from in vivo mouse models within the 400 to 700 nm range given a 405 nm excitation source at a single spot, without the use of injected dye. In this work, we present a theoretical model of expected spectral signature observations for a moving excitation laser across a tumor boundary based on discretized contribution of known spectral signatures (i.e. GBM, healthy) within the region of the laser spot on the surface of a tissue. This approach allows for improved intraoperative boundary detection despite having a laser spot size larger than the desired resolution of detection.
Authors
Ross, W; Tucker, M; Ma, G; Codd, P
MLA Citation
Ross, W., et al. “Model for and analysis of intraoperative brain tumor boundary detection based on known spectral signatures of glioblastoma.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 11229, 2019. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2546329.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1438695
Source
scopus
Published In
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of Spie
Volume
11229
Published Date
DOI
10.1117/12.2546329

Enhancing Reality: A Systematic Review of Augmented Reality in Neuronavigation and Education.

OBJECTIVE: Augmented reality (AR) is increasingly being explored as an adjunct to conventional neuronavigation systems. AR affords the ability to superimpose 3-dimensional images onto the real environment. A natural extension of this technology is to help guide neurosurgical planning and a means of stereotactic planning and guidance. Here we review the literature on the use of AR in neurosurgery with a focus on current technologies and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss this technology in the context of neurosurgical training as an educational tool. METHODS: PubMed search was performed for "augmented reality and neurosurgery" and "mixed reality and neurosurgery" from 2010. A total of 113 articles written in the last 5 years were retrieved, and 39 were ultimately included in the systematic review. RESULTS: The most common use of AR in neurosurgery was in cranial surgery (n = 26). Other uses included spine surgery (n = 9) and education (n = 2). Devices used for display of AR images varied as did image-to-patient registration methods and overall system accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Although various AR systems have been successfully utilized across many neurosurgical disciplines, more research is needed to improve accuracy in registration and to assess whether AR-assisted surgery is safe and effective for widespread adoption.
Authors
Cho, J; Rahimpour, S; Cutler, A; Goodwin, CR; Lad, SP; Codd, P
MLA Citation
Cho, James, et al. “Enhancing Reality: A Systematic Review of Augmented Reality in Neuronavigation and Education.World Neurosurg, vol. 139, July 2020, pp. 186–95. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.043.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1437963
PMID
32311561
Source
pubmed
Published In
World Neurosurg
Volume
139
Published Date
Start Page
186
End Page
195
DOI
10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.043

Characterization of photoablation versus incidence angle in soft tissue laser surgery: An experimental phantom study

© COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only. The removal of tissue with a laser scalpel is a complex process that is affected by the laser incidence angle on the surface of the tissue. Current models of laser ablation, however, do not account for the angle of incidence, assuming that it is always normal to the surface. In order to improve ablation modeling in soft tissue, this work characterizes photoablation crater profiles at incidence angles ranging from 0 degrees to 45 degrees off perpendicular. Simulated results, based on a discretized steady-state ablation model, are generated for comparison based on the assumption that material removal occurs in the direction of the laser. Experiments in an agarose-based, homogeneous soft tissue phantom are performed with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Surface profiles of the craters are acquired using a micro x-ray computed tomography scanner (Micro-CT) and compared to results from the simulation. The difference of the simulated and experimental results are measured and the error analysis is reported.
Authors
Ma, G; Ross, W; Tucker, M; Codd, P
MLA Citation
Ma, G., et al. “Characterization of photoablation versus incidence angle in soft tissue laser surgery: An experimental phantom study.” Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging  Proceedings of Spie, vol. 11238, 2020. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2546229.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1435986
Source
scopus
Published In
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of Spie
Volume
11238
Published Date
DOI
10.1117/12.2546229

Targeting PD-L1 Initiates Effective Antitumor Immunity in a Murine Model of Cushing Disease.

PURPOSE: Although pituitary adenoma is classified as benign, Cushing disease is associated with significant morbidity due to the numerous sequelae of elevated cortisol levels. Successful therapy for Cushing disease remains elusive due to high rates of treatment-refractory recurrence. The frequent emergence of lymphocytic hypophysitis following checkpoint blockade for other cancers, as well as the expression of PD-L1 on pituitary adenomas, suggest a role for immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This study confirms PD-L1 expression on functioning pituitary adenomas and is the first to evaluate the efficacy of checkpoint blockade (anti-PD-L1) therapy in a preclinical model of Cushing disease. RESULTS: Herein, treatment with anti-PD-L1 was successful in reducing adrenocorticotropic hormone plasma levels, decreasing tumor growth, and increasing survival in our model. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating T cells demonstrated a pattern of checkpoint expression similar to other checkpoint blockade-susceptible tumors. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that immunotherapy, particularly blockade of the PD1/PD-L1 axis, may be a novel therapeutic option for refractory Cushing disease. Clinical investigation is encouraged.
Authors
Kemeny, HR; Elsamadicy, AA; Farber, SH; Champion, CD; Lorrey, SJ; Chongsathidkiet, P; Woroniecka, KI; Cui, X; Shen, SH; Rhodin, KE; Tsvankin, V; Everitt, J; Sanchez-Perez, L; Healy, P; McLendon, RE; Codd, PJ; Dunn, IF; Fecci, PE
MLA Citation
Kemeny, Hanna R., et al. “Targeting PD-L1 Initiates Effective Antitumor Immunity in a Murine Model of Cushing Disease.Clin Cancer Res, vol. 26, no. 5, Mar. 2020, pp. 1141–51. Pubmed, doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3486.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1421398
PMID
31744830
Source
pubmed
Published In
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Volume
26
Published Date
Start Page
1141
End Page
1151
DOI
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3486