James Davis

Overview:

Dr. James Davis is a practicing physician of Internal Medicine, and serves as the Medical Director for Duke Center for Smoking Cessation, Director of the Duke Smoking Cessation Program and Co-Director of the Duke-UNC Tobacco Treatment Specialist Credentialing Program.  His research focuses on development of new pharmaceutical treatments for smoking cessation.  He is principal investigator on several trials including a study on “adaptive” smoking cessation and several trials on new medications for smoking cessation. The new medications leverage more novel neurobiological mechanisms - NMDA receptor antagonism, nicotinic receptor antagonism, which impact addiction-based learning and cue response. Additionally, Dr. Davis serves as co-investigator on trials on lung cancer screening, e-cigarettes, minor nicotine alkaloids, imaging trials, lung function trials and others. Dr. Davis leads the Duke Smoke-Free Policy Initiative, is co-author on a national  tobacco dependence treatment guideline, and provides training in tobacco dependence treatment for the Duke School of Medicine, Duke Internal Medicine, Family Practice and Psychiatry residency programs. 

Positions:

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Medicine, General Internal Medicine
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 1997

Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Internal Medicine Residency

Mayo Clinic

Grants:

Pfizer Preceptorship

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

A Randomized, Double-Blind Study to Evaluate the Impact of AXS-05 on Smoking Behavior.

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Lung Cancer Screening Implementation: Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care

Administered By
Medicine, General Internal Medicine
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Davis Tobacco-Free Generation Campus initiative Grant

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Innovations to Increase Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Program ¿ A Retrospective Review

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Combination of varenicline and nicotine patch for smoking cessation: A case report

Authors
Young, KM; Davis, JM
MLA Citation
Young, Kelly M., and James M. Davis. “Combination of varenicline and nicotine patch for smoking cessation: A case report.” Clinical Case Reports, vol. 7, no. 9, Wiley, Sept. 2019, pp. 1670–72. Crossref, doi:10.1002/ccr3.2332.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1403971
Source
crossref
Published In
Clinical Case Reports
Volume
7
Published Date
Start Page
1670
End Page
1672
DOI
10.1002/ccr3.2332

The Effect of Brief Mindfulness Training on Brain Reactivity to Food Cues During Nicotine Withdrawal: A Pilot Functional Imaging Study

© 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Objectives: Many individuals who smoke relapse due to weight gain. Mindfulness training has been shown to help smokers quit smoking and, in other populations, has been used to help people lose weight. This study was designed to assess the effect of 1 week of mindfulness practice on food cravings in smokers during 12-hour smoking abstinence. Methods: We assessed daily smokers with a history of smoking lapse after weight gain. Participants were provided with brief training in mindfulness meditation and mindful eating and were asked to practice each skill daily for 1 week. Before and after this week of mindfulness practice, participants completed surveys to rate their nicotine dependence and food cravings and underwent testing via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Study results included pre–post intervention reduction in brain activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, visual areas, and premotor areas, regions potentially associated with response to food images. Conclusions: The study was small; however, it suggests the possibility that mindfulness training might be used to decrease food cravings after smoking cessation.
Authors
Kragel, EA; Sweitzer, MM; Davis, JM
MLA Citation
Kragel, E. A., et al. “The Effect of Brief Mindfulness Training on Brain Reactivity to Food Cues During Nicotine Withdrawal: A Pilot Functional Imaging Study.” Mindfulness, Jan. 2019. Scopus, doi:10.1007/s12671-019-01201-y.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1398254
Source
scopus
Published In
Mindfulness
Published Date
DOI
10.1007/s12671-019-01201-y

An fMRI investigation of the impact of withdrawal on regional brain activity during nicotine anticipation.

Previous research indicates that drug motivational systems are instantiated in structures that process information related to incentive, motivational drive, memorial, motor/habit, craving, and cognitive control processing. The present research tests the hypothesis that activity in such systems will be powerfully affected by the combination of drug anticipation and drug withdrawal. Event-related fMRI was used to examine activation in response to a preinfusion warning cue in two experimental sessions that manipulated withdrawal status. Significant cue-induced effects were seen in the caudate, ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, the insula, subcallosal gyrus, nucleus accumbens, and anterior cingulate. These results suggest that withdrawal and nicotine anticipation produce (1) different motor preparatory and inhibitory response processing and (2) different craving related processing.
Authors
Gloria, R; Angelos, L; Schaefer, HS; Davis, JM; Majeskie, M; Richmond, BS; Curtin, JJ; Davidson, RJ; Baker, TB
MLA Citation
Gloria, Rebecca, et al. “An fMRI investigation of the impact of withdrawal on regional brain activity during nicotine anticipation..” Psychophysiology, vol. 46, no. 4, July 2009, pp. 681–93. Pubmed, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00823.x.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1116093
PMID
19490513
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
46
Published Date
Start Page
681
End Page
693
DOI
10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00823.x

Reported lifetime aberrant drug-taking behaviors are predictive of current substance use and mental health problems in primary care patients.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this report is to determine the frequency of aberrant drug behaviors and their relationship to substance abuse disorders in a large primary sample of patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. METHODS: The data utilized for this report was obtained from 904 chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy from their primary care physician. A questionnaire was developed based on 12 aberrant drug behaviors reported in the clinical literature. The diagnosis of a current substance use disorder was determined using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition(DSM-IV) criteria. RESULTS: The average duration of chronic pain in the sample was 16 years and for opioid therapy, 6.4 years. Of the patients, 80.5% reported one or more lifetime aberrant drug behaviors. The most frequent behaviors reported included early refills (41.7%), increase dose without physician consent (35.7%), and felt intoxicated from opioids (32.2%). Only 1.1% of subjects with 1-3 aberrant behaviors (N = 464, 51.2%) met DSM-IV criteria for current opioid dependence compared with 9.9% of patients with four or more behaviors (N = 264, 29.3%). Persons with positive urine toxicology tests for cocaine were 14 times more likely to report four or more behaviors than no behaviors (14.1% vs 1.1%). A logistic model found that subjects who reported four or more aberrant behaviors were more likely to have a current substance use disorder (odds ratio [OR] 10.14; 3.72, 27.64), a positive test for cocaine (odds ratio [OR] 3.01; 1.74, 15.4), an Addiction Severity Index (ASI) psychiatric composite score >0.5 (OR 2.38; 1.65, 3.44), male gender (OR 2.08: 1.48, 2.92), and older age (OR 0.69; 0.59, 0.81) compared with subjects with three or fewer behaviors. Pain levels, employment status, and morphine equivalent dose do not enter the model. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who report four or more aberrant drug behaviors are associated with a current substance use disorder and illicit drug use, whereas subjects with up to three aberrant behaviors have a very low probability of a current substance abuse disorder. Four behaviors--oversedated oneself, felt intoxicated, early refills, increase dose on own--appear useful as screening questions to predict patients at greatest risk for a current substance use disorders.
Authors
Fleming, MF; Davis, J; Passik, SD
MLA Citation
Fleming, Michael F., et al. “Reported lifetime aberrant drug-taking behaviors are predictive of current substance use and mental health problems in primary care patients..” Pain Med, vol. 9, no. 8, Nov. 2008, pp. 1098–106. Pubmed, doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00491.x.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1116095
PMID
18721174
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pain Med
Volume
9
Published Date
Start Page
1098
End Page
1106
DOI
10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00491.x

Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources.

The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.
Authors
Slagter, HA; Lutz, A; Greischar, LL; Francis, AD; Nieuwenhuis, S; Davis, JM; Davidson, RJ
MLA Citation
Slagter, Heleen A., et al. “Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources..” Plos Biol, vol. 5, no. 6, June 2007. Pubmed, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1116096
PMID
17488185
Source
pubmed
Published In
Plos Biology
Volume
5
Published Date
Start Page
e138
DOI
10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138

Research Areas:

Education
Mindfulness (Psychology)
Nicotine addiction
Oral medication
Research
Smoking Cessation