Roger McLendon

Overview:

Brain tumors are diagnosed in more than 20,000 Americans annually. The most malignant neoplasm, glioblastoma, is also the most common. Similarly, brain tumors constitute the most common solid neoplasm in children and include astrocytomas of the cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum as well as medulloblastomas of the cerebellum.  My colleagues and I have endeavored to translate the bench discoveries of genetic mutations and aberrant protein expressions found in brain tumors to better understand the processes involved in the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of brain tumors.  Using the resources of the Preston Robert Brain Tumor Biorepository at Duke, our team, consisting of Henry Friedman, Allan Friedman, and Hai Yan and lead by Darell Bigner, have helped to identify mutations in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH1 and IDH2) as a marker of good prognosis in gliomas of adults.  This test is now offered at Duke as a clinical test.  Working with the Molecular Pathology Laboratory at Duke, we have also brought testing for TERT promoter region mutations as another major test for classifying gliomas in adults.  Our collaboration with the Toronto Sick Kids Hospital has resulted in prognostic testing for childhood medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and ependymomas at Duke.

Positions:

Professor of Pathology

Pathology
School of Medicine

Professor of Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

B.A. 1979

Emory University

M.D. 1982

Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine

Resident, Pathology

Duke University

Fellow in Neuropathology, Pathology

Duke University

Assistant Clinical Professor of Pathology, Pathology

Mercer University

Assistant Professor of Pathology, Part-time, Pathology

Mercer University

Publications:

Subgroup and subtype-specific outcomes in adult medulloblastoma.

Medulloblastoma, a common pediatric malignant central nervous system tumour, represent a small proportion of brain tumours in adults. Previously it has been shown that in adults, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-activated tumours predominate, with Wingless-type (WNT) and Group 4 being less common, but molecular risk stratification remains a challenge. We performed an integrated analysis consisting of genome-wide methylation profiling, copy number profiling, somatic nucleotide variants and correlation of clinical variables across a cohort of 191 adult medulloblastoma cases identified through the Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium. We identified 30 WNT, 112 SHH, 6 Group 3, and 41 Group 4 tumours. Patients with SHH tumours were significantly older at diagnosis compared to other subgroups (p < 0.0001). Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) for WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 tumours was 64.4 (48.0-86.5), 61.9% (51.6-74.2), 80.0% (95% CI 51.6-100.0), and 44.9% (95% CI 28.6-70.7), respectively (p = 0.06). None of the clinical variables (age, sex, metastatic status, extent of resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) were associated with subgroup-specific PFS. Survival among patients with SHH tumours was significantly worse for cases with chromosome 3p loss (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.6; p = 0.02), chromosome 10q loss (HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.4; p < 0.0001), chromosome 17p loss (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.8; p = 0.02), and PTCH1 mutations (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2; p = 0.04). The prognostic significance of 3p loss and 10q loss persisted in multivariable regression models. For Group 4 tumours, chromosome 8 loss was strongly associated with improved survival, which was validated in a non-overlapping cohort (combined cohort HR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7; p = 0.007). Unlike in pediatric medulloblastoma, whole chromosome 11 loss in Group 4 and chromosome 14q loss in SHH was not associated with improved survival, where MYCN, GLI2 and MYC amplification were rare. In sum, we report unique subgroup-specific cytogenetic features of adult medulloblastoma, which are distinct from those in younger patients, and correlate with survival disparities. Our findings suggest that clinical trials that incorporate new strategies tailored to high-risk adult medulloblastoma patients are urgently needed.
Authors
Coltin, H; Sundaresan, L; Smith, KS; Skowron, P; Massimi, L; Eberhart, CG; Schreck, KC; Gupta, N; Weiss, WA; Tirapelli, D; Carlotti, C; Li, KKW; Ryzhova, M; Golanov, A; Zheludkova, O; Absalyamova, O; Okonechnikov, K; Stichel, D; von Deimling, A; Giannini, C; Raskin, S; Van Meir, EG; Chan, JA; Fults, D; Chambless, LB; Kim, S-K; Vasiljevic, A; Faure-Conter, C; Vibhakar, R; Jung, S; Leary, S; Mora, J; McLendon, RE; Pollack, IF; Hauser, P; Grajkowska, WA; Rubin, JB; van Veelen, M-LC; French, PJ; Kros, JM; Liau, LM; Pfister, SM; Kool, M; Kijima, N; Taylor, MD; Packer, RJ; Northcott, PA; Korshunov, A; Ramaswamy, V
MLA Citation
Coltin, Hallie, et al. “Subgroup and subtype-specific outcomes in adult medulloblastoma.Acta Neuropathol, vol. 142, no. 5, Nov. 2021, pp. 859–71. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s00401-021-02358-4.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1494650
PMID
34409497
Source
pubmed
Published In
Acta Neuropathol
Volume
142
Published Date
Start Page
859
End Page
871
DOI
10.1007/s00401-021-02358-4

An Unusual Ganglioglioma with Pseudopapillary Features and PRKAR2B-BRAF Fusion.

Authors
Oon, ML; Low, SYY; Kuick, CH; Goh, JY; Chang, KTE; McLendon, RE; Tan, CL
MLA Citation
Oon, Ming Liang, et al. “An Unusual Ganglioglioma with Pseudopapillary Features and PRKAR2B-BRAF Fusion.J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, vol. 80, no. 10, Oct. 2021, pp. 1000–03. Pubmed, doi:10.1093/jnen/nlab099.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1498837
PMID
34599823
Source
pubmed
Published In
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol
Volume
80
Published Date
Start Page
1000
End Page
1003
DOI
10.1093/jnen/nlab099

A Modified Nucleoside 6-Thio-2'-Deoxyguanosine Exhibits Antitumor Activity in Gliomas.

PURPOSE: To investigate the therapeutic role of a novel telomere-directed inhibitor, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (THIO) in gliomas both in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A panel of human and mouse glioma cell lines was used to test therapeutic efficacy of THIO using cell viability assays, flow cytometric analyses, and immunofluorescence. Integrated analyses of RNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein array data revealed the potential antitumor mechanisms of THIO. Four patient-derived xenografts (PDX), two patient-derived organoids (PDO), and two xenografts of human glioma cell lines were used to further investigate the therapeutic efficacy of THIO. RESULTS: THIO was effective in the majority of human and mouse glioma cell lines with no obvious toxicity against normal astrocytes. THIO as a monotherapy demonstrated efficacy in three glioma cell lines that had acquired resistance to temozolomide. In addition, THIO showed efficacy in four human glioma cell lines grown as neurospheres by inducing apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, THIO induced telomeric DNA damage not only in glioma cell lines but also in PDX tumor specimens. Integrated computational analyses of transcriptomic and proteomic data indicated that THIO significantly inhibited cell invasion, stem cell, and proliferation pathways while triggering DNA damage and apoptosis. Importantly, THIO significantly decreased tumor proliferation in two PDO models and reduced the tumor size of a glioblastoma xenograft and a PDX model. CONCLUSIONS: The current study established the therapeutic role of THIO in primary and recurrent gliomas and revealed the acute induction of telomeric DNA damage as a primary antitumor mechanism of THIO in gliomas.
Authors
Yu, S; Wei, S; Savani, M; Lin, X; Du, K; Mender, I; Siteni, S; Vasilopoulos, T; Reitman, ZJ; Ku, Y; Wu, D; Liu, H; Tian, M; Chen, Y; Labrie, M; Charbonneau, CM; Sugarman, E; Bowie, M; Hariharan, S; Waitkus, M; Jiang, W; McLendon, RE; Pan, E; Khasraw, M; Walsh, KM; Lu, Y; Herlyn, M; Mills, G; Herbig, U; Wei, Z; Keir, ST; Flaherty, K; Liu, L; Wu, K; Shay, JW; Abdullah, K; Zhang, G; Ashley, DM
MLA Citation
Yu, Shengnan, et al. “A Modified Nucleoside 6-Thio-2'-Deoxyguanosine Exhibits Antitumor Activity in Gliomas.Clin Cancer Res, Sept. 2021. Pubmed, doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0374.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1497999
PMID
34593527
Source
pubmed
Published In
Clinical Cancer Research
Published Date
DOI
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0374

Ultra high-risk PFA ependymoma is characterized by loss of chromosome 6q.

<h4>Background</h4>Within PF-EPN-A, 1q gain is a marker of poor prognosis, however, it is unclear if within PF-EPN-A additional cytogenetic events exist which can refine risk stratification.<h4>Methods</h4>Five independent non-overlapping cohorts of PF-EPN-A were analyzed applying genome-wide methylation arrays for chromosomal and clinical variables predictive of survival.<h4>Results</h4>Across all cohorts, 663 PF-EPN-A were identified. The most common broad copy number event was 1q gain (18.9%), followed by 6q loss (8.6%), 9p gain (6.5%), and 22q loss (6.8%). Within 1q gain tumors, there was significant enrichment for 6q loss (17.7%), 10q loss (16.9%), and 16q loss (15.3%). The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was strikingly worse in those patients with 6q loss, with a 5-year PFS of 50% (95% CI 45%-55%) for balanced tumors, compared with 32% (95% CI 24%-44%) for 1q gain only, 7.3% (95% CI 2.0%-27%) for 6q loss only and 0 for both 1q gain and 6q loss (P = 1.65 × 10-13). After accounting for treatment, 6q loss remained the most significant independent predictor of survival in PF-EPN-A but is not in PF-EPN-B. Distant relapses were more common in 1q gain irrespective of 6q loss. RNA sequencing comparing 6q loss to 6q balanced PF-EPN-A suggests that 6q loss forms a biologically distinct group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have identified an ultra high-risk PF-EPN-A ependymoma subgroup, which can be reliably ascertained using cytogenetic markers in routine clinical use. A change in treatment paradigm is urgently needed for this particular subset of PF-EPN-A where novel therapies should be prioritized for upfront therapy.
Authors
Baroni, LV; Sundaresan, L; Heled, A; Coltin, H; Pajtler, KW; Lin, T; Merchant, TE; McLendon, R; Faria, C; Buntine, M; White, CL; Pfister, SM; Gilbert, MR; Armstrong, TS; Bouffet, E; Kumar, S; Taylor, MD; Aldape, KD; Ellison, DW; Gottardo, NG; Kool, M; Korshunov, A; Hansford, JR; Ramaswamy, V
MLA Citation
Baroni, Lorena V., et al. “Ultra high-risk PFA ependymoma is characterized by loss of chromosome 6q.Neuro Oncology, vol. 23, no. 8, Aug. 2021, pp. 1360–70. Epmc, doi:10.1093/neuonc/noab034.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1496679
PMID
33580238
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuro Oncology
Volume
23
Published Date
Start Page
1360
End Page
1370
DOI
10.1093/neuonc/noab034

Histologic maturation of cerebral neuroblastoma following conventional chemotherapy.

Authors
Bidgoli, A; McLendon, RE; Johnston, JM
MLA Citation
Bidgoli, Alan, et al. “Histologic maturation of cerebral neuroblastoma following conventional chemotherapy.Pediatr Blood Cancer, vol. 68, no. 7, July 2021, p. e29034. Pubmed, doi:10.1002/pbc.29034.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1477568
PMID
33783952
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pediatr Blood Cancer
Volume
68
Published Date
Start Page
e29034
DOI
10.1002/pbc.29034

Research Areas:

3T3 Cells
ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1
Acidosis
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
Adenocarcinoma
Adenosine Triphosphatases
Administration, Oral
Adolescent
Adult
African Continental Ancestry Group
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alpha Particles
Amino Acid Sequence
Analysis of Variance
Aneuploidy
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Angiolipoma
Animals
Anoxia
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Antibodies
Antibodies, Blocking
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antibody Specificity
Anticonvulsants
Antigen-Antibody Complex
Antigens, CD
Antigens, CD15
Antigens, Differentiation
Antigens, Neoplasm
Antigens, Nuclear
Antigens, Surface
Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Aorta
Apoptosis
Arginine
Astatine
Astrocytes
Astrocytoma
Autopsy
Axons
Base Pair Mismatch
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
Benzamides
Benzenesulfonates
Bevacizumab
Biological Markers
Biopsy
Biopsy, Needle
Blood Vessels
Blotting, Western
Body Burden
Brain
Brain Diseases
Brain Neoplasms
Brain Stem Neoplasms
Bronchi
Busulfan
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
Calcinosis
Canada
Cancer Vaccines
Carbohydrate Sequence
Carboplatin
Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine
Carmustine
Case-Control Studies
Catenins
Cattle
Cauda Equina
Cell Adhesion
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Cell Cycle
Cell Division
Cell Hypoxia
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Lineage
Cell Nucleus
Cell Proliferation
Cell Separation
Cell Survival
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
Cells, Cultured
Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System Cysts
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections
Cerebellar Neoplasms
Cerebellopontine Angle
Cerebellum
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
Child
Child, Preschool
Chloroquine
Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
Chromosome Aberrations
Chromosome Deletion
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19
Clinical trials
Coculture Techniques
Cohort Studies
Combined Modality Therapy
Computational Biology
Cranial Fossa, Posterior
Cranial Irradiation
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
Craniocerebral Trauma
Craniopharyngioma
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
Cyclophosphamide
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Cytodiagnosis
Cytokine Receptor gp130
Cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus Infections
DNA Copy Number Variations
DNA Damage
DNA Helicases
DNA Methylation
DNA Mismatch Repair
DNA Modification Methylases
DNA Mutational Analysis
DNA Repair
DNA Repair Enzymes
DNA Replication
DNA, Neoplasm
DNA, Viral
DNA-Binding Proteins
Demyelinating Diseases
Dendritic Cells
Dermoid Cyst
Diagnosis, Differential
Diagnostic Errors
Disease Progression
Dogs
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Drug Implants
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Drug Synergism
Embryo, Mammalian
Encephalitis, Viral
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endothelial Cells
Endothelium, Vascular
Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Ependymoma
Epidermal Cyst
Epidermal Growth Factor
Epidural Neoplasms
Epidural Space
Epigenesis, Genetic
Epithelium
Epitopes
Etoposide
Europe
European Continental Ancestry Group
Exons
Female
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
Fibrosis
Fixatives
Flow Cytometry
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
Follow-Up Studies
Formaldehyde
Ganglioglioma
Ganglioneuroblastoma
Gangliosides
Gastrointestinal Hormones
Gene Amplification
Gene Deletion
Gene Duplication
Gene Expression
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Gene Silencing
Genes, Neoplasm
Genes, Tumor Suppressor
Genes, erbB-1
Genes, myc
Genes, p53
Genetic Association Studies
Genetic Markers
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genome, Human
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genomic Structural Variation
Genomics
Genotype
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Glioblastoma
Glioma
Glucose Transporter Type 1
Glutarates
Graft Survival
Granuloma, Giant Cell
Growth Inhibitors
Guanine
Hamartoma
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Hedgehog Proteins
Hematopoiesis
High-Throughput Screening Assays
Histidine
Histocytochemistry
Histological Techniques
Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
Histones
Homeodomain Proteins
Humans
Hybridomas
Hydrocephalus
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Hypoxia
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
Imidazoles
Immune Sera
Immune System
Immunoassay
Immunoblotting
Immunochemistry
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
Immunoglobulin G
Immunohistochemistry
Immunophenotyping
Immunoprecipitation
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunotherapy
Immunotoxins
In Situ Hybridization
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infusions, Intravenous
Injections, Intradermal
Injections, Intralesional
Injections, Intravenous
Injections, Intraventricular
Integrin alpha6
Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
Interleukin-6
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Iodine Radioisotopes
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
Isoquinolines
Isotope Labeling
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Karyotyping
Ki-67 Antigen
Kinetics
Laminectomy
Laminin
Leukemia L1210
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal
Lewis X Antigen
Loss of Heterozygosity
Luminescent Proteins
Lung
Lung Neoplasms
Lymphocyte Depletion
Lymphoma
Lymphopenia
Macrophages
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Medicine
Medulloblastoma
Melanoma
Melanoma, Experimental
Melphalan
Membrane Glycoproteins
Membrane Proteins
Meningeal Neoplasms
Meninges
Meningioma
Meningitis
Methylation
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Knockout
Mice, Mutant Strains
Mice, Nude
Mice, SCID
Mice, Transgenic
MicroRNAs
Microarray Analysis
Microdissection
Microscopy, Confocal
Microscopy, Electron
Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton
Microsurgery
Microtubule-Associated Proteins
Middle Aged
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Mitosis
Models, Biological
Models, Theoretical
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
Molecular Sequence Data
Molecular Targeted Therapy
Molecular Weight
Morpholines
Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
Muscle, Skeletal
Muscles
MutS Homolog 2 Protein
Mutant Proteins
Mutation
Mutation, Missense
Myeloid Cells
N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases
NF-kappa B
Necrosis
Neoplasm Grading
Neoplasm Invasiveness
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplasm Proteins
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Neoplasm Staging
Neoplasm Transplantation
Neoplasm, Residual
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Neovascularization, Pathologic
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Neoplasms
Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1
Neural Stem Cells
Neuroblastoma
Neuroglia
Neurologic Examination
Neurology
Neurons
Neuropil
Niacinamide
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Nitrosourea Compounds
North Carolina
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
Obesity
Observer Variation
Octamer Transcription Factor-3
Oculomotor Nerve Diseases
Oligodendroglia
Oligodendroglioma
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Oncogene Proteins
Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
Oncogenes
Oncology
Optic Chiasm
Optic Nerve Diseases
Optic Nerve Neoplasms
Organ Specificity
Ossification, Heterotopic
Osteonectin
Otx Transcription Factors
P-Glycoprotein
PTEN Phosphohydrolase
Pathology
Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms
Phenotype
Phenylurea Compounds
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
Phosphorylation
Pineal Gland
Pinealoma
Pituitary Neoplasms
Point Mutation
Poliomyelitis
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymers
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Population Surveillance
Positron-Emission Tomography
Postoperative Complications
Predictive Value of Tests
Primary Health Care
Principal Component Analysis
Prognosis
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Protein Kinases
Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Proteins
Proto-Oncogene Proteins
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
Purines
Quinolines
RNA
RNA Interference
RNA, Messenger
RNA, Small Interfering
Rabbits
Radiation
Radiation Tolerance
Radioisotopes
Radiopharmaceuticals
Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
Receptor, Notch2
Receptors, Cell Surface
Receptors, Interleukin-6
Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Recurrence
Registries
Regression Analysis
Reoperation
Repressor Proteins
Reproducibility of Results
Reproduction
Research Design
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult
Retinal Dehydrogenase
Retrospective Studies
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Risk Factors
S100 Proteins
STAT3 Transcription Factor
Safety
Salvage Therapy
Sample Size
Selection, Genetic
Sensitivity and Specificity
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sex Factors
Sirolimus
Specimen Handling
Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord Diseases
Spinal Cord Neoplasms
Stem Cell Niche
Stem Cell Transplantation
Stem Cells
Stereotaxic Techniques
Steroids
Sucrose
Sulfonamides
Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
Supratentorial Neoplasms
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Survival
Survival Analysis
Survival Rate
T-Lymphocytes
T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Telomerase
Telomere
Tenascin
Thrombocytopenia
Tissue Array Analysis
Tomography, Emission-Computed
Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
Trans-Activators
Transcription Factors
Transcription, Genetic
Transfection
Transforming Growth Factor alpha
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Translocation, Genetic
Treatment
Treatment Failure
Treatment Outcome
Tretinoin
Trypsin
Tumor Burden
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Tumor Markers, Biological
Tumor Microenvironment
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Tunicamycin
Tyrosine
United States
Vaccination
Vaccines, Subunit
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
World Health Organization
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Young Adult
raf Kinases