John Sampson

Overview:

Current research activities involve the immunotherapeutic targeting of a tumor-specific mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor. Approaches used to target this tumor-specific epitope include unarmed and radiolabeled antibody therapy and cell mediated approaches using peptide vaccines and dendritic cells. Another area of interest involves drug delivery to brain tumors. Translational and clinical work is carried out in this area to formulate the relationship between various direct intratumoral infusion parameters and drug distribution within brain tumors and normal brain.

The Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program (BTIP) has an emphasis on translational research in Neuro-Oncology. There are two main areas of study. The first is novel mechanisms of delivery of large molecular weight molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies, throughout brain intersitial space using novel intracerebral infusion techniques developed by this laboratory. Studies exploring this technology are undertaken in both small and large laboratory animals and patients with brain tumors.

The other focus of the BTIP is translational immunotherapy. In this line of work, dendritic cell vaccination strategies and adoptive T-cell strategies have been developed to target novel and well-characterized tumor-specific antigens in patients with brain tumors. The BTIP integrates well with and works closely with the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke. The BTIP is well funded and currently holds seven NIH grants, including a SPORE in Brain Cancer grant. There are a large number of investigators at various levels so that students will get exposure to various levels of research and mentorship.

Positions:

Robert H., M.D. and Gloria Wilkins Professor of Neurosurgery, in the School of Medicine

Neurosurgery
School of Medicine

Professor of Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery
School of Medicine

Professor of Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical Engineering
Pratt School of Engineering

Professor of Immunology

Immunology
School of Medicine

Professor of Radiation Oncology

Radiation Oncology
School of Medicine

Professor of Pathology

Pathology
School of Medicine

Professor in Orthopaedic Surgery

Orthopaedics
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 1990

University of Manitoba (Canada)

Ph.D. 1996

Duke University

M.H.S. 2007

Duke University School of Medicine

M.B.A. 2011

Duke University

Investigator in Cerebral Hydrodynamics Lab, Neurosurgery

University of Manitoba (Canada)

Intern, Surgery

Duke University

Resident in Neurosurgery, Surgery

Duke University

Ph.D. Program in Pathology, Surgery

Duke University

Grants:

Clinical Brain Tumor Development of a Cytomegalovirus-targeted Therapeutic with Vaccine pre-conditioning to Validate Novel Predictors of Vaccine Efficacy

Administered By
Neurosurgery
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Quantitative Staging and Therapeutic Response in IDH-1 Mutated Glioblastomas

Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
End Date

EGFRvIII-targeted Bispecific T cell Engagers for brain tumors

Administered By
Neurosurgery
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Enterovirus Vectors with Respiratory Tropism for Cancer Immunotherapy

Administered By
Neurosurgery, Neuro-Oncology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Brain tumors with regulatory T-cells treated with EGFRvIII-specific T-cells

Administered By
Neurosurgery
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Broad immunophenotyping of the murine brain tumor microenvironment.

Here we present a 14-color flow cytometry panel for the evaluation of 13 myeloid and lymphoid populations within murine glioblastoma samples. Reagents, processing protocols, and downstream analyses were thoroughly validated and optimized to resolve the following populations: T cells (CD4, CD8, CD3), B cells (B220), NK cells (NK1.1), neutrophils (Ly6G), classical and non-classical monocytes (Ly6c, CD43), macrophages (F4/80, CD11b), microglia (CD45-lo, CD11b), and dendritic cells (DCs) (CD11c, MHC class II). In addition, this panel leaves Alexa Fluor 488/FITC open for the inclusion of fluorescent reporters or congenic marker staining.
Authors
Tomaszewski, WH; Waibl-Polania, J; Miggelbrink, AM; Chakraborty, MA; Fecci, PE; Sampson, JH; Gunn, MD
MLA Citation
Tomaszewski, W. H., et al. “Broad immunophenotyping of the murine brain tumor microenvironment.J Immunol Methods, vol. 499, Sept. 2021, p. 113158. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.jim.2021.113158.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1498297
PMID
34597618
Source
pubmed
Published In
J Immunol Methods
Volume
499
Published Date
Start Page
113158
DOI
10.1016/j.jim.2021.113158

Targeting Immunometabolism in Glioblastoma.

We have only recently begun to understand how cancer metabolism affects antitumor responses and immunotherapy outcomes. Certain immunometabolic targets have been actively pursued in other tumor types, however, glioblastoma research has been slow to exploit the therapeutic vulnerabilities of immunometabolism. In this review, we highlight the pathways that are most relevant to glioblastoma and focus on how these immunometabolic pathways influence tumor growth and immune suppression. We discuss hypoxia, glycolysis, tryptophan metabolism, arginine metabolism, 2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) metabolism, adenosine metabolism, and altered phospholipid metabolism, in order to provide an analysis and overview of the field of glioblastoma immunometabolism.
Authors
Mohan, AA; Tomaszewski, WH; Haskell-Mendoza, AP; Hotchkiss, KM; Singh, K; Reedy, JL; Fecci, PE; Sampson, JH; Khasraw, M
MLA Citation
Mohan, Aditya A., et al. “Targeting Immunometabolism in Glioblastoma.Front Oncol, vol. 11, 2021, p. 696402. Pubmed, doi:10.3389/fonc.2021.696402.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1488057
PMID
34222022
Source
pubmed
Published In
Frontiers in Oncology
Volume
11
Published Date
Start Page
696402
DOI
10.3389/fonc.2021.696402

Enhancing t cell chemotaxis and infiltration in glioblastoma

Glioblastoma is an immunologically ‘cold’ tumor, which are characterized by absent or minimal numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). For those tumors that have been invaded by lymphocytes, they are profoundly exhausted and ineffective. While many immunotherapy approaches seek to reinvigorate immune cells at the tumor, this requires TILs to be present. Therefore, to unleash the full potential of immunotherapy in glioblastoma, the trafficking of lymphocytes to the tumor is highly desirable. However, the process of T cell recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) is tightly regulated. Naïve T cells may undergo an initial licensing process to enter the migratory phenotype necessary to enter the CNS. T cells then must express appropriate integrins and selectin ligands to interact with transmembrane proteins at the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Finally, they must interact with antigen-presenting cells and undergo further licensing to enter the parenchyma. These T cells must then navigate the tumor microenvironment, which is rich in immunosuppressive factors. Altered tumoral metabolism also interferes with T cell motility. In this review, we will describe these processes and their mediators, along with potential therapeutic approaches to enhance trafficking. We also discuss safety considerations for such approaches as well as potential counteragents.
Authors
Singh, K; Hotchkiss, KM; Patel, KK; Wilkinson, DS; Mohan, AA; Cook, SL; Sampson, JH
MLA Citation
Singh, K., et al. “Enhancing t cell chemotaxis and infiltration in glioblastoma.” Cancers, vol. 13, no. 21, Nov. 2021. Scopus, doi:10.3390/cancers13215367.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1500913
Source
scopus
Published In
Cancers
Volume
13
Published Date
DOI
10.3390/cancers13215367

Association of Early Multiple Organ Dysfunction With Clinical and Functional Outcomes Over the Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Study.

OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. While the impact of early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome has been studied in many critical care paradigms, the clinical impact of early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in traumatic brain injury is poorly understood. We examined the incidence and impact of early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome on clinical, functional, and disability outcomes over the year following traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients enrolled in the Transforming Clinical Research and Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study, an 18-center prospective cohort study of traumatic brain injury patients evaluated in participating level 1 trauma centers. SUBJECTS: Adult (age > 17 yr) patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale < 13). We excluded patients with major extracranial injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3). INTERVENTIONS: Development of early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, defined as a maximum modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score greater than 7 during the initial 72 hours following admission. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main outcomes were: hospital mortality, length of stay, 6-month functional and disability domains (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended and Disability Rating Scale), and 1-year mortality. Secondary outcomes included: ICU length of stay, 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, 3-month Disability Rating Scale, 1-year Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, and 1-year Disability Rating Scale. We examined 373 subjects with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. The mean (sd) Glasgow Coma Scale in the emergency department was 5.8 (3.2), with 280 subjects (75%) classified as severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-8). Among subjects with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury, 252 (68%) developed early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Subjects that developed early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome had a 75% decreased odds of a favorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 5-8) at 6 months (adjusted odds ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.51) and increased disability (higher Disability Rating Scale score) at 6 months (adjusted mean difference, 2.04; 95% CI, 0.92-3.17). Subjects that developed early multiple organ dysfunction syndrome experienced an increased hospital length of stay (adjusted mean difference, 11.4 d; 95% CI, 7.1-15.8), with a nonsignificantly decreased survival to hospital discharge (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.18-1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Early multiple organ dysfunction following moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is common and independently impacts multiple domains (mortality, function, and disability) over the year following injury. Further research is necessary to understand underlying mechanisms, improve early recognition, and optimize management strategies.
Authors
Krishnamoorthy, V; Temkin, N; Barber, J; Foreman, B; Komisarow, J; Korley, FK; Laskowitz, DT; Mathew, JP; Hernandez, A; Sampson, J; James, ML; Bartz, R; Raghunathan, K; Goldstein, BA; Markowitz, AJ; Vavilala, MS; Transforming Clinical Research and Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) Investigators,
MLA Citation
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1482091
PMID
33935162
Source
pubmed
Published In
Crit Care Med
Volume
49
Published Date
Start Page
1769
End Page
1778
DOI
10.1097/CCM.0000000000005055

Modified RANO, Immunotherapy RANO, and Standard RANO Response to Convection-Enhanced Delivery of IL4R-Targeted Immunotoxin MDNA55 in Recurrent Glioblastoma.

PURPOSE: The current study compared the standard response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO), immunotherapy RANO (iRANO), and modified RANO (mRANO) criteria as well as quantified the association between progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in an immunotherapy trial in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 47 patients with rGBM were enrolled in a prospective phase II convection-enhanced delivery of an IL4R-targeted immunotoxin (MDNA55-05, NCT02858895). Bidirectional tumor measurements were created by local sites and centrally by an independent radiologic faculty, then standard RANO, iRANO, and mRANO criteria were applied. RESULTS: A total of 41 of 47 patients (mean age 56 ± 11.7) were evaluable for response. PFS was significantly shorter using standard RANO compared with iRANO (log-rank, P < 0.0001; HR = 0.3) and mRANO (P < 0.0001; HR = 0.3). In patients who died and had confirmed progression on standard RANO, no correlation was observed between PFS and OS (local, P = 0.47; central, P = 0.34). Using iRANO, a weak association was observed between confirmed PFS and OS via local site measurements (P = 0.017), but not central measurements (P = 0.18). A total of 24 of 41 patients (59%) were censored using iRANO and because they lacked confirmation of progression 3 months after initial progression. A strong correlation was observed between mRANO PFS and OS for both local (R2 = 0.66, P < 0.0001) and centrally determined reads (R2 = 0.57, P = 0.0007). CONCLUSIONS: No correlation between radiographic PFS and OS was observed for standard RANO or iRANO, but a correlation was observed between PFS and OS using the mRANO criteria. Also, the iRANO criteria was difficult to implement due to need to confirm progression 3 months after initial progression, censoring more than half the patients.
Authors
Ellingson, BM; Sampson, J; Achrol, AS; Aghi, MK; Bankiewicz, K; Wang, C; Bexon, M; Brem, S; Brenner, A; Chowdhary, S; Floyd, JR; Han, S; Kesari, S; Randazzo, D; Vogelbaum, MA; Vrionis, F; Zabek, M; Butowski, N; Coello, M; Merchant, N; Merchant, F
MLA Citation
Ellingson, Benjamin M., et al. “Modified RANO, Immunotherapy RANO, and Standard RANO Response to Convection-Enhanced Delivery of IL4R-Targeted Immunotoxin MDNA55 in Recurrent Glioblastoma.Clin Cancer Res, vol. 27, no. 14, July 2021, pp. 3916–25. Pubmed, doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0446.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1480810
PMID
33863808
Source
pubmed
Published In
Clinical Cancer Research
Volume
27
Published Date
Start Page
3916
End Page
3925
DOI
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0446

Research Areas:

3T3 Cells
Abortion
Academic Medical Centers
Adipates
Administration, Oral
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Oxidoreductases
Amino Acid Sequence
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Antibodies
Antibodies, Bispecific
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antibodies, Neoplasm
Antibody Affinity
Antibody Formation
Antibody Specificity
Anticonvulsants
Antigen Presentation
Antigen-Antibody Complex
Antigen-Presenting Cells
Antigens
Antigens, CD3
Antigens, CD4
Antigens, Differentiation
Antigens, Neoplasm
Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Antitubercular Agents
Astrocytoma
Ataxia
Benzamides
Benzenesulfonates
Biological Assay
Biopsy
Bispecific antibodies
Blood-Brain Barrier
Blotting, Western
Body Burden
Body Mass Index
Bone Marrow Cells
Brain
Brain Diseases
Brain Neoplasms
Breast Neoplasms
CD4 Antigens
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
CHO Cells
Camptothecin
Cancer Vaccines
Carboplatin
Carcinogenicity Tests
Carmustine
Catalytic Domain
Catheterization
Catheters, Indwelling
Cell Culture Techniques
Cell Division
Cell Line
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Membrane
Cell Movement
Cell Proliferation
Cell Survival
Cells, Cultured
Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Cervical Vertebrae
Chemokines
Chemoradiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Chimera
Cholesterol
Chromatography
Cisplatin
Clinical Trials as Topic
Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
Cluster Analysis
Coculture Techniques
Cognition
Cohort Studies
Combined Modality Therapy
Complementarity Determining Regions
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Confidence Intervals
Contrast Media
Convection
Cranial Irradiation
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
Craniocerebral Trauma
Craniotomy
Culture Media, Conditioned
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Cytokines
Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
DNA Methylation
DNA Modification Methylases
DNA Mutational Analysis
DNA Repair Enzymes
DNA Topoisomerases, Type I
Dacarbazine
Dactinomycin
Data Collection
Decanoic Acids
Decompression, Surgical
Dendritic Cells
Diagnosis, Differential
Diagnostic Imaging
Disease Models, Animal
Disease Progression
Disease-Free Survival
Dose Fractionation
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Drug Administration Routes
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Delivery Systems
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Drug Implants
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Drug Synergism
Drug Therapy, Combination
Drugs, Chinese Herbal
Ear Neoplasms
Education, Graduate
Electrocoagulation
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Electroporation
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental
Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Eosinophilic Granuloma
Epidermal Growth Factor
Epitopes
Equipment Design
Escherichia coli
Etoposide
Exophthalmos
Exosomes
Exotoxins
Facial Nerve
Female
Flow Cytometry
Follow-Up Studies
Forkhead Transcription Factors
Gadolinium DTPA
Gene Expression
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Gene Transfer Techniques
Genetic Engineering
Genetic Techniques
Genetic Testing
Genetic Therapy
Genetic Vectors
Genotype
Glasgow Coma Scale
Glioblastoma
Glioma
Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases
Goals
Guanine
HIV Infections
Head
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Health Care Costs
Health Services Accessibility
Hemocyanin
Hemocyanins
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Homeless Persons
Homosexuality
Humans
Hydroxyurea
Hypersensitivity, Delayed
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Imaging
Immune System
Immunity
Immunity, Innate
Immunization
Immunocompetence
Immunocompromised Host
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunoglobulin G
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes
Immunohistochemistry
Immunologic Surveillance
Immunomodulation
Immunosuppression
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy, Adoptive
Immunotoxins
Indicators and Reagents
Individualized Medicine
Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase
Infant
Infratentorial Neoplasms
Infusion Pumps
Infusion Pumps, Implantable
Infusions, Intra-Arterial
Infusions, Intravenous
Injections, Intradermal
Injections, Intralesional
Injections, Intravenous
Injections, Intraventricular
Injury Severity Score
Interferon-gamma
Interleukin-13
Interleukin-2
Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
Intraocular Pressure
Intraoperative Complications
Iodine Radioisotopes
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
Isotope Labeling
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Keratinocytes
Language
Linear Models
Liposomes
Lung Neoplasms
Lymph Nodes
Lymphocyte Activation
Lymphocyte Depletion
Lymphocytes
Lymphopenia
Macrophages
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Melanoma
Melanoma, Experimental
Membrane Proteins
Meningeal Neoplasms
Meningioma
Meningitis
Methods
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Inbred Strains
Mice, Nude
Mice, Transgenic
Microcirculation
Microinjections
Microsurgery
Middle Aged
Models, Animal
Models, Molecular
Molecular Sequence Data
Molecular Targeted Therapy
Monitoring, Intraoperative
Monocytes
Movement
Multivariate Analysis
Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
Mutant Proteins
Mutation
Naphthoquinones
Neoplasm Grading
Neoplasm Invasiveness
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Neoplasm Staging
Neoplasm Transplantation
Neoplasm, Residual
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Experimental
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Neovascularization, Pathologic
Nerve Compression Syndromes
Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental
Neural Stem Cells
Neuroma, Acoustic
Neurosurgical Procedures
Niacinamide
Nitrosourea Compounds
North Carolina
O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
Observer Variation
Oligodendroglioma
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Oncology
Oncolytic Virotherapy
Oncolytic Viruses
Opportunistic Infections
Pain Management
Pain Measurement
Palliative Care
Paraganglioma
Paranasal Sinus Diseases
Paresis
Patient Selection
Peptide Fragments
Peptides
Phenylurea Compounds
Phosphoproteins
Phosphorylation
Phytotherapy
Pilot Projects
Piperazines
Plant Extracts
Plants, Medicinal
Poliomyelitis
Polyesters
Positron-Emission Tomography
Postoperative Complications
Posture
Poverty
Precision Medicine
Predictive Value of Tests
Preoperative Care
Prevalence
Principal Component Analysis
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Protein Engineering
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Protein Precursors
Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Proteome
Proteomics
Proto-Oncogene Proteins
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Publishing
Pyridines
Pyrimidines
Quality of Life
Quinazolines
RNA Viruses
Radiation Injuries
Radiation Tolerance
Radioimmunotherapy
Radioligand Assay
Radiometry
Radiopharmaceuticals
Radiosurgery
Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy Dosage
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
Radiotherapy, High-Energy
Radiotherapy, Image-Guided
Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
Receptor, erbB-2
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Recombinant Proteins
Recombination, Genetic
Recurrence
Registries
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Remission Induction
Reoperation
Reproducibility of Results
Retinal Diseases
Retrospective Studies
Retroviridae
Retroviridae Infections
Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Safety
Salvage Therapy
Sample Size
Saponins
Sensitivity and Specificity
Sequence Alignment
Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated
Signal Transduction
Single-Chain Antibodies
Sirolimus
Skin Neoplasms
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Software
Solubility
Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord Injuries
Spinal Fusion
Spinal Neoplasms
Spleen
Standard of Care
Stereotaxic Techniques
Steroids
Subcutaneous Fat
Substrate Specificity
Supratentorial Neoplasms
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Surgical Wound Infection
Survival
Survival Analysis
Survival Rate
Swiss 3T3 Cells
T-Lymphocyte Subsets
T-Lymphocytes
T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
Tenascin
Th2 Cells
Thiazoles
Thrombocytopenia
Time Factors
Tissue Distribution
Titrimetry
Tomography, Emission-Computed
Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Transfection
Transforming Growth Factor alpha
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Transplantation, Heterologous
Treatment
Treatment Failure
Treatment Outcome
Trigeminal Nerve
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
Tumor Burden
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Tumor Escape
Tumor Markers, Biological
Tumor Microenvironment
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Tyrosine
Tyrphostins
United States
Urban Population
Vaccination
Vaccines, Subunit
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Viremia
Virulence Factors
Work Schedule Tolerance
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Young Adult