Michael Bergin

Overview:

My general research focus is on the influence of air pollution on both climate and human health. My specific interest is particulate matter (PM), and I have done a wide range of studies on the emission, formation, deposition and impacts of PM. I am particularly interested in how PM impacts climate by modifying the radiation balance of the atmosphere and I have done studies in both pristine regions of the world (Greenland and the Himalaya), as well as hazy regions (the Southeastern US, China, and India). More recently I have been studying the influence of PM on human health with emphasis on determining the relative contributions of sources (such as biomass burning and vehicular emissions) to acute health impacts. I am also involved in developing and deploying the next generation of air quality sensors to inform citizens on the quality of the air they are breathing so that they can make informed decisions to improve their air. My vision involves combining a multidisciplinary, multicultural approach to research and education that brings together researchers from around the world to collectively work together to make the air cleaner.

Positions:

Sternberg Family Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Civil and Environmental Engineering
Pratt School of Engineering

Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Civil and Environmental Engineering
Pratt School of Engineering

Faculty Network Member of The Energy Initiative

Nicholas Institute-Energy Initiative
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Affiliate, Duke Global Health Institute

Duke Global Health Institute
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

Ph.D. 1995

Carnegie Mellon University

Grants:

Revised - SATVAM: Streaming Analytics over Temporal Variables from Air quality Monitoring

Administered By
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Awarded By
Indo-US Science and Technology Forum
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

SATVAM: Streaming Analytics over Temporal Variables from Air quality Monitoring

Administered By
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Awarded By
Indo-US Science and Technology Forum
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

The combined influence of outdoor and indoor pollutants on acute respiratory response of Children in China

Administered By
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Enhancing Iran-US Scientific Collaborative Links by Improving Air Quality in Tehran

Administered By
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Awarded By
U.S. Department of State
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Developing Multi-Pollutant Exposure Indicators of Traffic Pollution: The Dorm Room Inhalation to Vehicle Emissions (DRIVE) Study

Administered By
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Awarded By
Emory University
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Source attribution of black and Brown carbon near-UV light absorption in Beijing, China and the impact of regional air-mass transport.

Black and Brown Carbon (BC, BrC) are key parameters of climate forcing, yet significant challenges exist assigning emission source contributions to light-absorption by carbonaceous aerosols. Additionally, BC and BrC emissions add to extreme air pollution events in Chinese mega-cities, which harm human health and detract from the natural and built environment. To address these concerns, the ability to estimate atmospheric light absorption related to emission sources and global inventories is a highly valuable tool for climate modelers and policy makers. Three months of BC and BrC data was collected using an Aethalometer in parallel to PM<sub>2.5</sub> filter sampling during a stringent emission controls period and post controls period, including during the regional heating season. In this study reconstructed 370 nm wavelength absorption was calculated by applying source specific Mass Absorption Cross-Sections to PMF apportioned EC and OC results. Reconstructed absorption showed good agreement with the ambient measured absorption for both BC and BrC. In Beijing, the major contributor to near-UV absorption was mobile sources, which accounted for 45-54% of absorption by BC and 14-18% by BrC. BrC absorption from secondary aerosols, biomass burning, and soil dust was also estimated, with these sources contributing from 1 to 9% individually. Meteorological cluster analysis showed that air mass origin did not impact the absorption reconstruction and that the highest regional contribution to near-UV light absorption originated primarily in areas south and east of Beijing. The study shows ambient near-UV light absorption can be predicted using BC and BrC MAC values from sources. However, the current number of multi-wavelength and source specific BrC MAC values reported in the literature is limited. The reconstruction approach allows for a more robust method of assigning light absorption to source categories, allowing the expansion of aethalometer derived BrC apportionment to multiple sources, including biomass burning.
Authors
Olson, MR; Yuqin, W; de Foy, B; Li, Z; Bergin, MH; Zhang, Y; Schauer, JJ
MLA Citation
Olson, Michael R., et al. “Source attribution of black and Brown carbon near-UV light absorption in Beijing, China and the impact of regional air-mass transport.The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 807, no. Pt 2, Oct. 2021, p. 150871. Epmc, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150871.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1498461
PMID
34634351
Source
epmc
Published In
The Science of the Total Environment
Volume
807
Published Date
Start Page
150871
DOI
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150871

Seasonal photovoltaic soiling: Analysis of size and composition of deposited particulate matter

Photovoltaic soiling - energy loss due to dust and particulate matter (PM) deposition - remains a top concern for global renewable energy generation. To minimize energy losses, the seasonality of soiling needs to be understood. This comprehensive study took place in Gandhinagar India and combined soiling monitoring (using a Campbell Scientific soiling station and a new, low-cost sensor called the Low-cost Alternative to Monitoring Photovoltaic Soiling, or LAMPS station) for all of 2019 with 3-week sampling cycles to analyze size distribution and composition. The LAMPS station has been found to monitor soiling to an accuracy of within 1.5% soiling. Soiling rates were found to be 0.45 ± 0.10% day−1 during dry periods and negligible during the monsoon. The monsoon rains dramatically shifted size distribution with a 90% reduction of deposited > PM10 mass, but more than twice the mass of deposited PM2.5 particles. Rain and humidity also lead to non-uniformity in mass loading over the scale of millimeters, deemed milli-scale non-uniformity (MSNU). Composition was found to be >95% crustal dust and there was no difference in composition seasonally. There was also no compositional difference between sizes of particles larger than PM2.5. Moisture led to a variety of cementation products deriving from reactions with water soluble gases as well as precipitation reactions all taking place within droplets on the surface. The most prevalent cementation effect was caking masses high in carbon and salts. Fungal growth was seen to be growing, and spore producing, after just 3-weeks.
Authors
Valerino, M; Ratnaparkhi, A; Ghoroi, C; Bergin, M
MLA Citation
Valerino, M., et al. “Seasonal photovoltaic soiling: Analysis of size and composition of deposited particulate matter.” Solar Energy, vol. 227, Oct. 2021, pp. 44–55. Scopus, doi:10.1016/j.solener.2021.08.080.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1496705
Source
scopus
Published In
Solar Energy
Volume
227
Published Date
Start Page
44
End Page
55
DOI
10.1016/j.solener.2021.08.080

Open Waste Canals as Potential Sources of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Aerosols in Urban Kanpur, India.

Understanding the movement of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is critical to managing their spread. To assess potential ARG transport through the air via urban bioaerosols in cities with poor sanitation, we quantified ARGs and a mobile integron (MI) in ambient air over periods spanning rainy and dry seasons in Kanpur, India (n = 53), where open wastewater canals (OCWs) are prevalent. Gene targets represented major antibiotic groups-tetracyclines (tetA), fluoroquinolines (qnrB), and beta-lactams (blaTEM)-and a class 1 mobile integron (intI1). Over half of air samples located near, and up to 1 km from OCWs with fecal contamination (n = 45) in Kanpur had detectable targets above the experimentally determined limits of detection (LOD): most commonly intI1 and tetA (56% and 51% of samples, respectively), followed by blaTEM (8.9%) and qnrB (0%). ARG and MI densities in these positive air samples ranged from 6.9 × 101 to 5.2 × 103 gene copies/m3 air. Most (7/8) control samples collected 1 km away from OCWs were negative for any targets. In comparing experimental samples with control samples, we found that intI1 and tetA densities in air are significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively, alpha = 0.05) near laboratory-confirmed fecal contaminated waters than at the control site. These data suggest increased densities of ARGs and MIs in bioaerosols in urban environments with inadequate sanitation. In such settings, aerosols may play a role in the spread of AR.
Authors
Ginn, O; Berendes, D; Wood, A; Bivins, A; Rocha-Melogno, L; Deshusses, MA; Tripathi, SN; Bergin, M; Brown, J
MLA Citation
Ginn, Olivia, et al. “Open Waste Canals as Potential Sources of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Aerosols in Urban Kanpur, India.The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Mar. 2021. Epmc, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1222.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1476114
PMID
33684068
Source
epmc
Published In
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Published Date
DOI
10.4269/ajtmh.20-1222

Detection and Quantification of Enteric Pathogens in Aerosols near Open Wastewater Canals in Cities with Poor Sanitation

Urban sanitation infrastructure is inadequate in many low-income countries, leading to the presence of highly concentrated, uncontained fecal waste streams in densely populated areas. Combined with mechanisms of aerosolization, airborne transport of enteric microbes and their genetic material is possible in such settings but remains poorly characterized. We detected and quantified enteric pathogen-associated gene targets in aerosol samples near open wastewater canals (OWCs) or impacted (receiving sewage or wastewater) surface waters and control sites in La Paz, Bolivia; Kanpur, India; and Atlanta, USA, via multiplex reverse-transcription qPCR (37 targets) and ddPCR (13 targets). We detected a wide range of enteric targets, some not previously reported in extramural urban aerosols, with more frequent detections of all enteric targets at higher densities in La Paz and Kanpur near OWCs. We report density estimates ranging up to 4.7 × 102 gc per mair3 across all targets including heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., norovirus, and Cryptosporidium spp. Estimated 25, 76, and 0% of samples containing positive pathogen detects were accompanied by culturable E. coli in La Paz, Kanpur, and Atlanta, respectively, suggesting potential for viability of enteric microbes at the point of sampling. Airborne transmission of enteric pathogens merits further investigation in cities with poor sanitation.
Authors
Ginn, O; Rocha-Melogno, L; Bivins, A; Lowry, S; Cardelino, M; Nichols, D; Tripathi, SN; Soria, F; Andrade, M; Bergin, M; Deshusses, MA; Brown, J
MLA Citation
Ginn, O., et al. “Detection and Quantification of Enteric Pathogens in Aerosols near Open Wastewater Canals in Cities with Poor Sanitation.” Environmental Science and Technology, Jan. 2021. Scopus, doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c05060.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1501348
Source
scopus
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Published Date
DOI
10.1021/acs.est.1c05060

Characteristics and inhalation cancer risk assessment of exposure to VOCs in 20 asthmatic children's homes in Shanghai

Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. In this study, indoor and outdoor concentrations of 640 VOCs and their associated cancer risks are investigated in 20 asthmatic children's homes in Shanghai, China. The potential inhalation cancer risks of exposure to 13 carcinogenic VOCs were estimated by the Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) proposed by the US EPA. Exposure to formaldehyde and 1,4-dichlorobenzene presented a mean lifetime cancer risk 4.15 and 2.75 fold higher than the US EPA proposed risk level of 1×10-4. 91% of the total cancer risk is due to indoor exposure. The investigation of potential inhalation cancer risks could help to support more effective air pollution control measures and risk management.
Authors
Fang, L; Norris, C; Johnson, K; Cui, X; Teng, Y; Li, Z; Mo, J; Bergin, M; Schauer, JJ; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y
MLA Citation
Fang, L., et al. “Characteristics and inhalation cancer risk assessment of exposure to VOCs in 20 asthmatic children's homes in Shanghai.” 15th Conference of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Indoor Air 2018, 2018.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1483124
Source
scopus
Published In
15th Conference of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Indoor Air 2018
Published Date