Michael Kastan

Positions:

William and Jane Shingleton Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology

Pharmacology & Cancer Biology
School of Medicine

Professor of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology

Pharmacology & Cancer Biology
School of Medicine

Director of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Professor of Pediatrics

Pediatrics
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 1984

Washington University in St. Louis

Ph.D. 1984

Washington University in St. Louis

Grants:

Using bacterial CRISPR/Cas endonucleases to selectively eliminate HPV-transformed cells in vivo

Administered By
Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
End Date

Development and Validation of Novel Therapeutic Targets in Anal Cancer

Administered By
Medicine, Medical Oncology
Awarded By
The Farrah Fawcett Foundation
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
End Date

The role of ATM in Metabolic Stress Responses

Administered By
Pharmacology & Cancer Biology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

The role of ATM in Metabolic Stress Responses

Administered By
Pharmacology & Cancer Biology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Metabolic Sensing and Stress Response Deficit in Ataxia Telangiectasia

Administered By
Pharmacology & Cancer Biology
Awarded By
A-T Children's Project
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Retrospective Diagnosis of Ataxia-Telangiectasia in an Adolescent Patient With a Remote History of T-Cell Leukemia.

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar degeneration that is typically diagnosed in early childhood. A-T is associated with a predisposition to malignancies, particularly lymphoid tumors in childhood and early adulthood. An adolescent girl with minimal neurological symptoms was diagnosed with A-T 8 years after completing therapy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, following a diagnosis of ATM-mutated breast cancer in her mother. We highlight the importance of recognizing ATM mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, appreciating the phenotypic heterogeneity of A-T, and defining optimal cancer screening in A-T patients.
Authors
Sze, S-GK; Lederman, HM; Crawford, TO; Wangler, MF; Lewis, AM; Kastan, MB; Dibra, HK; Taylor, AMR; Wechsler, DS
MLA Citation
Sze, Sei-Gyung K., et al. “Retrospective Diagnosis of Ataxia-Telangiectasia in an Adolescent Patient With a Remote History of T-Cell Leukemia.J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, Nov. 2019. Pubmed, doi:10.1097/MPH.0000000000001672.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1421634
PMID
31743320
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
Published Date
DOI
10.1097/MPH.0000000000001672

Low dose chloroquine decreases insulin resistance in human metabolic syndrome but does not reduce carotid intima-media thickness.

Background: Metabolic syndrome, an obesity-related condition associated with insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, leads to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoarthritis, and other disorders. Optimal therapy is unknown. The antimalarial drug chloroquine activates the kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), improves metabolic syndrome and reduces atherosclerosis in mice. To translate this observation to humans, we conducted two clinical trials of chloroquine in people with the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Eligibility included adults with at least 3 criteria of metabolic syndrome but who did not have diabetes. Subjects were studied in the setting of a single academic health center. The specific hypothesis: chloroquine improves insulin sensitivity and decreases atherosclerosis. In Trial 1, the intervention was chloroquine dose escalations in 3-week intervals followed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Trial 2 was a parallel design randomized clinical trial, and the intervention was chloroquine, 80 mg/day, or placebo for 1 year. The primary outcomes were clamp determined-insulin sensitivity for Trial 1, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) for Trial 2. For Trial 2, subjects were allocated based on a randomization sequence using a protocol in blocks of 8. Participants, care givers, and those assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Results: For Trial 1, 25 patients were studied. Chloroquine increased hepatic insulin sensitivity without affecting glucose disposal, and improved serum lipids. For Trial 2, 116 patients were randomized, 59 to chloroquine (56 analyzed) and 57 to placebo (51 analyzed). Chloroquine had no effect on CIMT or carotid contrast enhancement by MRI, a pre-specified secondary outcome. The pre-specified secondary outcomes of blood pressure, lipids, and activation of JNK (a stress kinase implicated in diabetes and atherosclerosis) were decreased by chloroquine. Adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that low dose chloroquine, which improves the metabolic syndrome through ATM-dependent mechanisms in mice, modestly improves components of the metabolic syndrome in humans but is unlikely to be clinically useful in this setting.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00455325, NCT00455403), both posted 03 April 2007.
Authors
McGill, JB; Johnson, M; Hurst, S; Cade, WT; Yarasheski, KE; Ostlund, RE; Schechtman, KB; Razani, B; Kastan, MB; McClain, DA; de Las Fuentes, L; Davila-Roman, VG; Ory, DS; Wickline, SA; Semenkovich, CF
MLA Citation
McGill, Janet B., et al. “Low dose chloroquine decreases insulin resistance in human metabolic syndrome but does not reduce carotid intima-media thickness.Diabetol Metab Syndr, vol. 11, 2019, p. 61. Pubmed, doi:10.1186/s13098-019-0456-4.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1404051
PMID
31384309
Source
pubmed
Published In
Diabetol Metab Syndr
Volume
11
Published Date
Start Page
61
DOI
10.1186/s13098-019-0456-4

Untitled

Authors
Chabner, BA; Kastan, MB; Teicher, BA
MLA Citation
Chabner, B. A., et al. “Untitled.” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 3, no. 9, AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, Sept. 1997, pp. 1455–1455.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub888459
Source
wos
Published In
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Volume
3
Published Date
Start Page
1455
End Page
1455

Signalling to p53: where does it all start?

Alterations in the p53 gene product appear to be a major factor in human tumorigenesis and may influence the responses of many human tumors to therapy. Much effort has focused on understanding the signals which normally initiate p53 growth-suppressive functions. Though it has been known that DNA damage can induce p53, a recent publication reports data which suggest that p53 can be induced by depletion of ribonucleotide pools, even in the absence of detectable DNA damage(1). These observations provide new ideas about how cells utilize the p53 signal and open up new avenues of investigation for manipulating p53 function.
Authors
MLA Citation
Kastan, M. B. “Signalling to p53: where does it all start?Bioessays, vol. 18, no. 8, Aug. 1996, pp. 617–19. Pubmed, doi:10.1002/bies.950180804.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub751842
PMID
8760334
Source
pubmed
Published In
Bioessays
Volume
18
Published Date
Start Page
617
End Page
619
DOI
10.1002/bies.950180804

p53-dependent G1 arrest involves pRB-related proteins and is disrupted by the human papillomavirus 16 E7 oncoprotein.

The cell cycle regulatory tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRB are targeted for inactivation by several tumor viruses, including the high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) via interactions of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins with p53 and pRB, respectively. p53 plays a central role in a signal transduction pathway that mediates G1 arrest after DNA damage, though the mechanism by which G1 arrest occurs has not been elucidated. The cyclin-associated protein p21waf1/cip1 has recently been shown to be induced by p53 and to inhibit cyclin complex-mediated phosphorylation of pRB in vitro. Thus, we investigated a possible role for pRB in the p53-mediated DNA damage response. After gamma-irradiation, cells expressing wild-type p53 arrested in G1, contained increased levels of WAF1/CIP1 mRNA, and demonstrated accumulation of hypophosphorylated pRB. In contrast, cell lines with abnormal p53 genes or with p53 functionally inactivated by the E6 oncoprotein of HPV16 (a high-risk HPV) failed to arrest in G1, did not elevate WAF1/CIP1 mRNA, and did not accumulate hypophosphorylated pRB. Despite apparently normal elevation of p53 protein and WAF1/CIP1 mRNA after irradiation, cells expressing HPV16 E7 also failed to arrest in G1 and did not accumulate hypophosphorylated pRB. Disruption of RB genes alone did not totally abrogate this G1 arrest. Our results suggest that p53 indirectly regulates phosphorylation of pRB and that pRB and/or other pRB-like molecules that bind to HPV16 E7 participate in the DNA damage-mediated G1 arrest signal. In the process of HPV infection, the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may undermine this cell cycle checkpoint, contributing to the accumulation of genetic alterations during tumorigenesis.
Authors
Slebos, RJ; Lee, MH; Plunkett, BS; Kessis, TD; Williams, BO; Jacks, T; Hedrick, L; Kastan, MB; Cho, KR
MLA Citation
Slebos, R. J., et al. “p53-dependent G1 arrest involves pRB-related proteins and is disrupted by the human papillomavirus 16 E7 oncoprotein.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 91, no. 12, June 1994, pp. 5320–24. Pubmed, doi:10.1073/pnas.91.12.5320.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub751853
PMID
8202487
Source
pubmed
Published In
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume
91
Published Date
Start Page
5320
End Page
5324
DOI
10.1073/pnas.91.12.5320