Pao-Hwa Lin

Overview:


My research interest lies generally in the area of dietary patterns and chronic diseases including hypertension using controlled feeding study and lifestyle intervention designs.

Two major controlled feeding clinical trials that I was involved in include the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Study and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-Sodium (DASH-Sodium) Study. In addition to being an active member for the diet committee for DASH, I also function as the chair of the diet committee for the DASH-Sodium study.  I am familiar with the development and operation of a controlled feeding study, which means the process of study design, development of questionnaire/forms for data collection/monitoring, development of quality assurance procedure, and data analysis.

I've also helped with the design and implementation of the lifestyle behavioral intervention program for the Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP), PREMIER clinical trial, Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM), ENCORE study, and the Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) trial.

Key words: Diet, controlled feeding study, mineral, blood pressure, nutrition.

Positions:

Associate Professor in Medicine

Medicine, Nephrology
School of Medicine

Member of Duke Molecular Physiology Institute

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

Ph.D. 1990

University of Texas, Austin

Grants:

Cellphone Intervention Trial for Young Adults (CITY)

Administered By
Medicine, Nephrology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Facility and Web-based Approaches to Lifestyle Change in Resistant Hypertension

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Medicine
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Lifestyle, CVD Risk and Cognitive Impairment

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Medicine
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Identifying Strategies for Effective Weight Management in Diverse Interventions

Administered By
Medicine, Nephrology
Awarded By
University of Pittsburgh
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

CAPS1 and CAPS2 clinical trial

Administered By
Medicine, Nephrology
Awarded By
Institute for Medical Research, Inc.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Protocol of a multicenter, single-blind, randomised, parallel controlled feeding trial evaluating the effect of a Chinese Healthy Heart (CHH) diet in lowering blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors.

INTRODUCTION: Unhealthy diet has been identified as the number one attributor of total mortality in China, accounting for more than 20% of total deaths. Although the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have been proven beneficial in managing cardiovascular risk factors in Western countries, whether healthy diets with similar cardiovascular benefits can be developed that are consistent with Chinese food culture remains unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: The Diet, ExerCIse and CarDiovascular hEalth (DECIDE)-Diet trial is a multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled feeding trial to evaluate the effect of the Chinese Healthy Heart (CHH) diet, in comparison with the Chinese usual diet, in lowering cardiovascular risk factors among community residents with the increased cardiovascular risk. A total of 360 adults aged between 25 and 75 years old and with systolic blood pressure between 130 and 159 mm Hg will be recruited from four centres located in four areas representing four major Chinese cuisines: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu. After 1 week of run-in period with local usual diet, the compliant participants will be randomised to the intervention group with the CHH diet or the control group with the usual local diet, on a 1:1 ratio, for 4 weeks. Body weight of study participants will be maintained during the entire study period. The primary outcome is the change in SBP from the baseline to the end of the study. DECIDE-Diet trial will be the first randomised controlled feeding trial to evaluate the effect of a CHH diet in lowering cardiovascular risk factors. This trial will provide compelling evidence on the CHH diet in effect of improving cardiovascular health among Chinese food consumers all around the world. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial adheres to the Declaration of Helsinki and guidelines of Good Clinical Practice. Signed informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The trial has been approved by the Peking University Institutional Review Board (approval number: IRB00001052-18094). The results will be disseminated through academic conferences and publications in international peer-reviewed journals. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03882645); Pre-results.
Authors
Xie, W; Wang, Y; Sun, J; Zeng, G; Zhu, H; Yang, Z; Gao, P; Yang, J; Feng, L; Lin, P-H; Li, M; Xu, J; Chen, J; Wu, Y
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1456452
PMID
32819944
Source
pubmed
Published In
Bmj Open
Volume
10
Published Date
Start Page
e036394
DOI
10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036394

Metabolic and Neurocognitive Changes Following Lifestyle Modification: Examination of Biomarkers from the ENLIGHTEN Randomized Clinical Trial.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise (AE) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet can improve neurocognition. However, the mechanisms by which lifestyle improves neurocognition have not been widely studied. We examined the associations between changes in metabolic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory biomarkers with executive functioning among participants from the Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Neurocognitive Health Enhancement (ENLIGHTEN) trial. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between changes in metabolic function and neurocognition among older adults with cognitive impairment, but without dementia (CIND) participating in a comprehensive lifestyle intervention. METHODS: ENLIGHTEN participants were randomized using a 2×2 factorial design to receive AE, DASH, both AE+DASH, or a health education control condition (HE) for six months. Metabolic biomarkers included insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA-IR]), leptin, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1); neurotrophic biomarkers included brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); and inflammatory biomarkers included interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP). RESULTS: Participants included 132 sedentary older adults (mean age = 65 [SD = 7]) with CIND. Results demonstrated that both AE (d = 0.48, p = 0.015) and DASH improved metabolic function (d = 0.37, p = 0.039), without comparable improvements in neurotrophic or inflammatory biomarkers. Greater improvements in metabolic function, including reduced HOMA-IR (B = -2.3 [-4.3, -0.2], p = 0.033) and increased IGF-1 (B = 3.4 [1.2, 5.7], p = 0.004), associated with increases in Executive Function. CONCLUSION: Changes in neurocognition after lifestyle modification are associated with improved metabolic function.
Authors
Smith, PJ; Mabe, SM; Sherwood, A; Doraiswamy, PM; Welsh-Bohmer, KA; Burke, JR; Kraus, WE; Lin, P-H; Browndyke, JN; Babyak, MA; Hinderliter, AL; Blumenthal, JA
MLA Citation
Smith, Patrick J., et al. “Metabolic and Neurocognitive Changes Following Lifestyle Modification: Examination of Biomarkers from the ENLIGHTEN Randomized Clinical Trial.J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 77, no. 4, 2020, pp. 1793–803. Pubmed, doi:10.3233/JAD-200374.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1461141
PMID
32925039
Source
pubmed
Published In
J Alzheimers Dis
Volume
77
Published Date
Start Page
1793
End Page
1803
DOI
10.3233/JAD-200374

Public interest in dietary supplements for prostate cancer prevention.

Authors
Patel, DN; Kuhlmann, P; Lin, P-H; Freeland, SJ
MLA Citation
Patel, Devin N., et al. “Public interest in dietary supplements for prostate cancer prevention.Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, vol. 24, no. 1, Mar. 2021, pp. 58–60. Pubmed, doi:10.1038/s41391-020-0257-8.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1452891
PMID
32684622
Source
pubmed
Published In
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis
Volume
24
Published Date
Start Page
58
End Page
60
DOI
10.1038/s41391-020-0257-8

Vegetable Consumption and Progression of Prostate Cancer.

Authors
Csizmadi, I; Lin, P-H; Freedland, SJ
MLA Citation
Csizmadi, Ilona, et al. “Vegetable Consumption and Progression of Prostate Cancer.Jama, vol. 323, no. 24, June 2020, pp. 2529–30. Pubmed, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6729.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1451406
PMID
32573662
Source
pubmed
Published In
Jama
Volume
323
Published Date
Start Page
2529
End Page
2530
DOI
10.1001/jama.2020.6729

Preliminary evidence of effects of potassium chloride on a metabolomic path to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

INTRODUCTION: Low potassium intake can affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that potassium chloride (KCl) supplementation can improve cardiovascular risk metabolomic profile. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 26 participants with prediabetes randomized to KCl or placebo, we performed targeted mass-spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling on baseline and 12-week (end-of-study) plasma samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the many correlated metabolites into fewer, independent factors that retain most of the information in the original data. RESULTS: Those taking KCl had significant reductions (corresponding to lower cardiovascular risk) in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) factor (P = 0.004) and in valine levels (P = 0.02); and non-significant reductions in short-chain acylcarnitines (SCA) factor (P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: KCl supplementation may improve circulating BCAA levels, which may reflect improvements in overall cardiometabolic risk profile. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02236598; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02236598.
Authors
Chatterjee, R; Davenport, CA; Kwee, L; D'Alessio, D; Svetkey, LP; Lin, P-H; Slentz, CA; Ilkayeva, O; Johnson, J; Edelman, D; Shah, SH
MLA Citation
Chatterjee, Ranee, et al. “Preliminary evidence of effects of potassium chloride on a metabolomic path to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.Metabolomics, vol. 16, no. 7, June 2020, p. 75. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s11306-020-01696-w.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1448208
PMID
32556595
Source
pubmed
Published In
Metabolomics
Volume
16
Published Date
Start Page
75
DOI
10.1007/s11306-020-01696-w